A/B Street transforms OpenStreetMap (OSM) data into a detailed geometric and semantic representation of the world for traffic simulation. This chapter describes that map model, with the hopes that it'll be useful for purposes beyond this project.
Map covers everything inside some hand-drawn boundary, usually scoped to a
city or a few of a city's districts. Unlike OSM, it doesn't cover the entire
world; it only has areas specifically extracted for some purpose.
A map consists of many objects. Mainly, there are roads, broken down into individual lanes, and intersections. A road is a single segment connecting exactly two intersections (as opposed to OSM, where a single "way" may span many intersections). Lanes within a road have a specific type, which dictates their direction of travel (or lack of travel, like on-street parking) and uses. Sidewalks are represented as bidirectional lanes. Roads connect at intersections, which contain an explicit set of turns, each linking a source lane to a destination lane.
Maps also contain parking lots and buildings, which connect to the nearest driveable lane and a sidewalk. Maps have water and park areas, only used for drawing. They also represent public transit stops and routes.
Unlike some GIS systems, maps don't use any kind of database -- they're just a file, anywhere from 1 to ~500MB (depending on the size of their boundary). Once loaded into memory, different objects from the map can be accessed directly, along with a large API to perform various queries.
Most of the map's API is read-only; once built, a map doesn't change until user-created edits are applied.
The pipeline to import a map from OSM data (and also optional supplementary, city-specific data) is complex and may take a few minutes to run, but it happens once offline. Applications using maps just read the final file.
Why use A/B Street's map model instead of processing OSM directly?
TODO: Order these better. For each one, show before/after pictures
Bodies of water, forests, parks, and other areas are represented in OSM as relations, requiring the user to stitch together multiple polylines in undefined orders and handle inner holes. A/B Street maps handle all of that, and also clip the area's polygon to the boundary of the entire map -- including coastlines.
OSM represents roads as a polyline of the physical center of the road. A/B Street infers the number and type of lanes from OSM metadata, then creates individual lanes of appropriate width, each with a center-line and polygon for geometry. At intersections, the roads and lanes are "trimmed back" to avoid overlapping, and the "common area" becomes the intersection's polygon. This heuristic process is reasonably robust to complex shapes, with special treatment of highway on/off-ramps, although it does still have some bugs.
At each intersection, A/B Street infers all legal movements between vehicle lanes and sidewalks. This process makes use of OSM metadata about turn lanes, inferring reasonable defaults for multi-lane roads. OSM turn restriction relations, which may span a sequence of several roads to describe U-turns around complex intersections, are also used.
OSM models parking lots as areas along with the driveable aisles. Usually the capacity of a lot isn't tagged. A/B Street automatically fills paring lots with individual stalls along the aisles, estimating the capacity just from this geometry.
At unsignalized intersections, A/B Street infers which roads have to stop, and which have right-of-way.
OSM has no way to describe how traffic signals are configured. A/B Street models fixed-timer signals, automatically inferring the number of stages, their duration, and the movements that are prioritized and permitted during each stage.
A/B Street can determine routes along lanes and turns for vehicles and pedestrians. These routes obey OSM's turn restriction relations that span multiple road segments. They also avoid roads that're tagged as not allowing through-traffic, depending on the route's origin and destination and vehicle type. The pathfinding optionally makes use of contraction hierarchies to greatly speed up query performance, at the cost of a slower offline importing process.
OSM tags bridges and tunnels, but the roads that happen to pass underneath bridges aren't mapped. A/B Street detects these and represents the z-order for drawing.
Similar to areas, A/B Street consolidates the geometry of OSM buildings, which may be split into multiple polygons. Each building is also associated with the nearest driveable lane and sidewalk, and metadata is used to infer a land-use (like residential and commercial) and commercial amenities available.
A/B Street uses bus stops and route relations from OSM to build a model of public transit routes. OSM makes few guarantees about how the specifics of the route are specified, but A/B Street produces specific paths, handling clipping to the map boundary.
... All of this isn't the case yet, but it's a WIP!
Some cyclepaths, tram lines, and footpaths in OSM are tagged as separate ways, with no association to a "main" road. Sometimes this is true -- they're independent trails that only occasionally cross roads. But often they run alongside a road. A/B Street attempts to detect these and "snap" them to the main road as extra lanes.
... But this doesn't work yet at all.